(Philadelphia, PA:  Printed by Thomas and William Bradford, 1806), 8-9. Locke went on to argue from the Bible and reason in his 1689 Second Treatise of Civil Government that because all men naturally are equal and free, “without being subjected to the will or authority of any other man,” a just civil society is based on popular sovereignty through the people’s consent. 15. The principle of popular sovereignty, so bodily proclaimed by the Declaration of Independence, is woven throughout the Constitution. Dual Sovereignty Doctrine people in a representative democracy.14 Although the people delegate authority and confer legitimacy, they retain sovereignty.15 As sovereign, the people possess the final check on government authority. 15 (Washington, DC:  Thomas Jefferson Memorial Association, 1907), 118-119. Courses. Second, the constitution made in the name of the people is ratified by a majority vote of the people … Thomas Hooker as the “father of American Democracy” Comparison/Contrast Chart: Students create a two-column chart, titling the left column “Divine Right of Kings” and the right column “Popular Sovereignty.” Students right down characteristics of each concept in the appropriate column, perhaps including definition, basis/reasoning for it, who holds power and why, how power is obtained/delegated, how this system characterizes society, historical context/time, etc. The American Quest for Self-Government [7] John Locke, A First Treatise of Civil Government, 1689, in Two Treatises on Civil Government, John Locke (London:  George Routledge and Sons, 1884), 122-3. He explains, “Political power did not begin until families began to be gathered together into one…community; …the community did not begin by the creation of Adam, or by his will alone, but of all of them which did agree in this community.”[5]  These churchmen concluded that the people of a community or civil state hold political authority in that realm, and the people may delegate authority to their chosen governors. Popular Sovereignty In the Declaration of Independence, popular sovereignty is the basis for democracy. Referencing Genesis 1:28, Locke observes, …, If Creation, which gave nothing but a being, “made” not Adam “prince of his posterity,” if Adam (Gen. i:28) was not constituted lord of mankind, nor had a “private dominion” given him…but only a right and power over the earth and inferior creatures, in common with the children of men; …if all this be so, as I think, by what has been said, is very evident, then man has a “natural freedom”…since all that share in the same common nature, faculties, and powers are in nature equal, and ought to partake in the same common rights and privileges, till the manifest appointment of God who is “Lord overall, blessed forever,” can be produced to show any particular person’s supremacy, or a man’s own consent subjects him to a superior.[7]. The Declaration of Independence rejects the idea of the divine right of kings, which theorizes that since God appoints kings, they have the right to rule as they see fit. Popular sovereignty is the idea that political power resides with the whole people of a community or state—not with any particular person, group, or ancestral line. Indeed, the American colonists had applied popular sovereignty in their colonies for over a century. By John Patrick, Understanding Democracy, A Hip Pocket Guide (Oxford University Press), Understanding Democracy, A Hip Pocket Guide, Annenberg Guide to the Constitution: What It Says, What It Means, Freedom of Assembly: Nationalist Socialist Party v. Skokie, The 19th Amendment: A Woman’s Right to Vote, Your Right to Remain Silent: Miranda v. Arizona, Making Our Fourth Amendment Right Real: Mapp v. Ohio, Freedom of Assembly: The Right to Protest, Influential Movements in the Struggle for Women’s Suffrage, Civil Liberties vs. National Security: A Wartime Balancing Act, Monty Python and the Quest for the Perfect Fallacy, Actions That Changed the Law: Ledbetter v. Goodyear, © Copyright 2021 The Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania. This meant they were going to separate from each other. The Estonian Sovereignty Declaration (Estonian: suveräänsusdeklaratsioon), fully: Declaration on the Sovereignty of the Estonian SSR (Deklaratsioon Eesti NSV suveräänsusest), was issued on November 16, 1988 during the Singing Revolution in Estonia.The declaration asserted Estonia's sovereignty and the supremacy of the Estonian laws over the laws of the Soviet Union. Related Blogs/Videos: The people thus have rightful authority within the bounds of God’s moral law to choose how and who to govern for themselves, and their government and governors derive legitimate authority by the people’s consent. 2. 5. Presidential Portrait of Thomas Jefferson by Rembrandt Peale, 1800. Second, the constitution made in the name of the people is ratified by a majority vote of the people or by representatives elected by the people. Who was the main author of the Declaration of Independence? In a 1825 letter to Henry Lee, for instance, he explained that the Declaration’s authority rests on “the harmonizing sentiments of the day, whether expressed in conversation, in letters, printed essays, or in the elementary books of public right, as Aristotle, Cicero, Locke, Sidney, etc.”[11]  In a 1825 Report to the President and Directors of the Literary Fund at the University of Virginia, Jefferson later reiterated that “as to the general principles of liberty and the rights of man, in nature and in society, the doctrines of Locke…and of Sidney…may be considered as those generally approved by our fellow citizens of…the United States.”[12]  The language of the Declaration resembles Locke’s, explains Donald S. Lutz in his 1988 Origins of American Constitutionalism, “because the Americans enthusiastically fastened upon his clear, efficient vocabulary for expressing what they had already been doing for years” in their colonies. In the same state, no one can claim over another superior authority.”[15]  In his 1793 court decision Chisholm vs. Georgia, Wilson again asserted popular sovereignty as it relates to civil law, stating, “Laws derived from the pure source of equality and justice must be founded on the CONSENT of those, whose obedience they require. "He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people." 12. Independence lacks any enforcement mechanism, its clauses about popular sovereignty establish the people's authority to engage in representative politics in order to identify core human rights. The state power serves all citizens and can be exercised only in cases within the scope stipulated by law, and by means specified by law.’’, The 1988 constitution of Brazil asserts in Article 1: ‘‘All power emanates from the people, who exercise it by means of elected representatives or directly as provided by the constitution.’’ And Article 2 of the 1992 constitution of the Republic of Lithuania says: ‘‘The State of Lithuania shall be created by the people. Sidney essentially argued that unlimited, absolute power held by fallible men often leads to corruption and tyranny. The relationship between popular sovereignty, democratization, and democracy is most evident in the ideology behind the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution. The early Americans’ adherence to the modern, Western principle of popular sovereignty thus demonstrates the strong role of the Bible and a God-oriented worldview on America’s founding political philosophy. TO LEARN MORE ON THE MAGNA CARTA, CLICK HERE! Paragraph 1: Describe the connections between the Declaration of Independence and the first principle, popular sovereignty. Sidney explains, …, He [Filmer] recites an argument of Bellarmine, that “it is evident in Scripture God hath ordained powers; but God hath given them to no particular person, because by nature all men are equal. In its main features the Declaration of Independence is a great spiritual document. Such as are versed in scripture not only know that it neither agrees with the letter or spirit of that book but that it is unreasonable in itself. The Context of the Protestant Reformation Popular sovereignty, also called squatter sovereignty, in U.S. history, a controversial political doctrine according to which the people of federal territories should decide for themselves whether their territories would enter the Union as free or slave states. ... Order, popular sovereignty, and natural rights. The structure of the document starts … 9. However, they also notably grounded their ideas in the Bible. Enjoy your stay feeling comfortable as home WELCOME TO PRETIUM REALTY Affordable, Accommodating & Soothe Staying BEST PROPERTIES FOR RENT It is our properties that make the family feel like wow!! The best free civics materials from around the web in one monthly mailing. In the Bible-oriented worldview, the Creator God gives all mankind, as equal and free, dominion over the earth and, therefore, earthly political power. What are the three fundamental values on which the Declaration of Independence is based? Ultimately, founding-era Americans adhered to popular sovereignty to justify the American Revolution and to form the new nation of the United States that values man’s equality, freedom, and consent. [5] Filmer, Patriarcha, 24. The Key Tenets of the Protestant Reformation The popular sovereignty principle is one of the underlying ideas of the United States Constitution, and it argues that the source of governmental power (sovereignty) lies with the people (popular). Thomas J. Randolph (Charlottesville, VA:  F. Carr & Co., 1829), 441. do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.’’ Popular sovereignty was also expressed in Article VII of the Constitution, which required that nine states approve the proposed framework of government before it could become the supreme law of the land. The Declaration of Independence and the Constitution provide the ideological foundations for the democratic government of the United States. Equality, liberty, popular sovereignty, the rights of man - these are not elements which we can see and touch. [3] Samuel Rutherford, Lex Rex, or the Law and the Prince, 1644 (Edinburgh, Scotland:  Robert Ogle and Oliver & Boyd, 1843), 6-8, 80, 143. This idea is expressed and applied in the U. S. Declaration and Constitution through the consent of the governed—the people’s authority and right to choose and define the powers of their government and governors. Popular sovereignty is a doctrine rooted in the belief that each citizen has sovereignty over themselves. . administrator February 12, 2020 Uncategorized Comments Off on Popular Sovereignty Quote From Declaration Of Independence, Declaration Of Independence Rhetorical Appeals Lesson Plan Enotes Com 10 Views When founding the United States, the American founders adhered to the philosophical, governing principle of popular sovereignty, or the people’s rule. The people elect, for example, their president and congressional legislators. In his 1798 essay, Of the Mode of Education Proper in a Republic, Founder and physician Benjamin Rush, for example, cited the Bible as the basis for equality among men. Popular sovereignty is a basic idea of democracy. Portrait of John Locke by Sir Godfrey Kneller, 1697. 23. Email. No country can realistically claim to be a democracy unless it proclaims constitutionally and implements functionally the principle of popular sovereignty. And the word for that, and this is a key idea for the United States, is popular, popular sovereignty, the people are sovereign. . Rather, human beings in creation and in a state of nature exist as equal. [bold face mine][19]. In his 1698 essay, Discourses Concerning Government, Sidney asserted that absolute monarchy was flawed and not favored in the Bible but that popular sovereignty agreed with Holy Scripture. 22. Source for more information:  Kamrath, Angela E.  The Miracle of America:  The Influence of the Bible on the Founding History and Principles of the United States of America for a People of Every Belief. 102: 281. He writes, …, All eyes are opened, or opening to the rights of man. It is important to note that the people and their governors are still fallible and accountable to God and His moral law, just civil law, and one another. Popular Sovereignty is the idea that political authority should also belong to the people of the United States. Bird Wilson (Philadelphia, PA:  Lorenzo Press, Printed for Bronson and Chauncey, 1804), 309. When founding the United States, the American founders adhered to the philosophical, governing principle of popular sovereignty, or the people’s rule. They upheld the view that all men are created naturally equal and free by God. Third Edition (2020) is now available! They argued for popular sovereignty based on the practice of the ancient Israelites in the Bible. POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY IN DEMOCRATIC POLITICAL THEORY. Because of popular sovereignty, federal government is sustained by people electing representatives. Instead of constituting a government over His people, consisting of many parts, which we take to be a model fit to be imitated by others, He might have declared a word, that the eldest man of the eldest line should be king and that his [the king’s] will ought to be their law. The Declaration of Independence sums up these rights as "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness." The Creator God:  The Basis of Authority, Law, & Rights for Mankind in the Declaration The U. S. Declaration of Independence of 1776 recognizes, for example, a Creator God, the equality of all men, and just government instituted by the people’s consent. [13] Donald S. Lutz, The Origins of American Constitutionalism (Baton Rouge, LA:  Louisiana State U Press, 1988), 114. The first principle of popular sovereignty underlies the entire Declaration of Independence. Receiving a minority of popular sovereignty quotes from the declaration independence accomplish their conclusions we sign you in more. 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