to place or deliver an item in a different area than it originated. Sedimentary rocks are one of three main types of rocks, along with igneous and metamorphic. The development of this type of dating, in the 1950s, transformed paleontology and enhanced the accuracy of the fossil record. Sediment is fine-grained particles like silt and clay, generally occurring as a result of soil erosion. Erosion can move sediment through water, ice, or wind. They can be considered as a closed coastal sub-system as far as sediment is concerned. Therefore, some discovered fossils are able to be dated according to the strata, a distinct layer of rock, that they are found in. كنوبى، رسوبي مواد (داوبو يا بادپواسطه)، خړه: تل ته كښيناستونكى مواد, Dictionary, Encyclopedia and Thesaurus - The Free Dictionary, the webmaster's page for free fun content, Sediment Identification for Geotechnics by Marine Acoustics, Sediment Management Annual Review Meeting. area of land that receives no more than 25 centimeters (10 inches) of precipitation a year. Erosion is the removal and transportation of rock or soil. ADVERTISEMENTS: In this article we will discuss about:- 1. A _____ is a flat, triangular-shaped land formed when a river carries and deposits sediment at its mouth. Melissa McDaniel The suspended load is the fine‐grained sediment that remains in the water during transportation. In some locations, as much as 90 percent of coastal sediment comes from rivers. GCSE COASTS VOCABULARY. Sediment is solid material that is moved and deposited in a new location. There are four types of transportation : Traction - large, heavy pebbles are rolled along the river bed. The active coastal zone (also called active coastal profile) is the cross-shore coastal zone that is highly dynamic by the action of tides, waves and wind. Kaolin: In geography, kaolin is a fine clay formed due to chemical weathering of granite through the process of hydrolysis. In physical erosion, the rock breaks down but its chemical composition remains the same, such as during a landslide or bioerosion, when plants take root and crack rocks. Suspended loads required the Velocity to keep the sediment transporting above the bed. National Geographic News: Mississippi River Delta to ‘Drown’ by 2100? natural mineral form of salt (sodium chloride.) material, such as earth, sand, and gravel, transported by a glacier. able to produce crops or sustain agriculture. Introduction to Ocean Deposits: The unconsolidated sediments, derived from various sources, deposited at the sea floors are in­cluded in ocean deposits. Erin Sprout She or he will best know the preferred format. the flat, low-lying plain that sometimes forms at the mouth of a river from deposits of sediments. This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. The fossil record helps paleontologists, archaeologists, and geologists place important events and species in the appropriate geologic era. In a terrestrial ecosystem, examples might include temperature, light, and water. Kame: In a geography terms list, kame is a small ridge of sand and gravel, that is formed when the glacier melts. Sediment cells. This process causes rocks to form a specific pyramid-like shape and they are called ventifacts. If the rock layers are horizontal, small overhangs of more resistant rock form in the cliff face. A sediment cell is a largely self-contained stretch of coastline. Tim Gunther, Jeannie Evers, Emdash Editing You cannot download interactives. allogenic, allochthonous - Geological material that has been transported and then accumulates elsewhere is allochthonous, and sediment carried by a river is allogenic. Explore the process of erosion with this collection of resources. Deltas, river banks, and the bottom of waterfalls are common areas where sediment accumulates.Glaciers can freeze sediment and then deposit it elsewhere as the ice carves its way through the landscape or melts. Hilary Hall small, loose grains of disintegrated rocks. (1989, 1993). Sediment is made of small particles deposited in water or on land. Washington, DC 20036, National Geographic Society is a 501 (c)(3) organization. Sustainability Policy |  Information and translations of SEDIMENT in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. In reality, some sediment does get transferred between neighbouring cells. solid material transported and deposited by water, ice, and wind. Sediment can consist of rocks and minerals, as well as the remains of plants and animals. Silt refers to a sediment of a certain size. n. The act or process of depositing sediment. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. If it is heated further, the rock will melt completely and reform as an igneous rock. natural mineral form of salt (sodium chloride.) Sand dunes are made of rocky sediment worn down by wind and collision with other sand particles.Sediment is important because it often enriches the soil with nutrients. Sediment Cells/ Littoral Cells
These depositional landforms (such as beaches, sand dunes, salt marshes and mudflats) act as a dynamic sediment store and sediments are transported onshore, offshore, and alongshore to create them. hard building material made from mixing cement with rock and water. Currents transport sediment over a variety of spatial and temporal scales: The quantity and material of the sediment particles, as well as the geography of the local terrain will still play a contributing role in the sediment load 10. Select from these resources to teach about the process of weathering in your classroom.a. The material in a sediment cell can be considered as a sediment spending plan, with misfortunes and additions. Sediment is solid material that is moved and deposit ed in a new location. Also called rock salt. If a media asset is downloadable, a download button appears in the corner of the media viewer. Learn more. Hilary Costa Water can wash sediment, such as gravel or pebbles, down from a creek, into a river, and eventually to that river's delta. Information and translations of SEDIMENT in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. For example, a flooding river is muddy and discolored from the large amounts of sediment suspended in the water. Velocity. to overflow or cover in water or another liquid. element of geography mean what is in that story and what is it about or in the sentence What is a delta in geography? Abiotic and biotic factors work together to create a unique ecosystem. Matter that settles on a bottom or collects on a surface by a natural process: the material that settles at the bottom of a liquid. When rivers flood, sediment gets deposited on the floodplain. Caused mostly by the burning of fossil fuels, acid rain is a form of precipitation with high levels of sulfuric acid, which can cause erosion in the materials in which it comes in contact. The suspended load is generally made up of lighter‐weight, finer‐grained particles such as … National Geographic Headquarters An example of physical weathering is wind blowing across the desert playas. The Rights Holder for media is the person or group credited. area of land covered by shallow water or saturated by water. Learn more about abiotic factors with this curated resource collection. Kara West. They can be driven by winds, or initiated by differences in water density, temperature or salinity. Angle of Dip: the angle of the bedding planes which affects the shape of the cliff. (5,592 kilometers/3,473 miles) river in East Africa. The material in a sediment cell can be considered as a sediment spending plan, with misfortunes and additions. movement of air (from a high pressure zone to a low pressure zone) caused by the uneven heating of the Earth by the sun. With low velocity the sediment will deposit. Growth (vertical and/or horizontal) of morphological features (beach, bar, dune, sand bank, tidal flat, salt marsh, tidal channel, etc.) It can be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a boulder. The suspended load is generally made up of lighter‐weight, finer‐grained particles such as … Sediment is solid material that is moved and deposited in a new location. This sediment is called overbank deposits. Each sediment … A _____ is a flat, triangular-shaped land formed when a river carries and deposits sediment at its mouth. remains of something broken or destroyed; waste, or garbage. Noun There was a layer of sediment in the bottom of the tank. Erosion is the process where rocks are broken down by natural forces such as wind or water. Living creatures remove ions, such as calcium, magnesium, and potassium, from the water to make shells or soft tissue. Sedimentary soil is usually better for farming. Biochemical sedimentary rocks form in the ocean or a salt lake. Erosion is the geological process in which earthen materials are worn away and transported by natural forces such as wind or water. sedimentation synonyms, sedimentation pronunciation, sedimentation translation, English dictionary definition of sedimentation. Sediment created and deposited by glaciers is called moraine.Wind can move dirt across a plain in dust storms or sandstorms. Waves approach the coast at an angle because of the direction of prevailing wind. Terms of Service |  Sedimentary rocks are, as the name suggests, formed from the buildup of sediment. With every new fossil discovery, our understanding of the environment in a particular time becomes richer. This transported material is called sediment. For example, sedimentary rock shale becomes slate when heat and pressure are added. large part of the ocean enclosed or partly enclosed by land. Tara Ramroop Sediment moves from one place to another through the process of erosion. In a marine ecosystem, abiotic factors would include salinity and ocean currents. Most erosion is performed by liquid water, wind, or ice (usually in the form of a glacier).If the wind is dusty, or water or glacial ice is muddy, erosion is taking place. An abiotic factor is a non-living part of an ecosystem that shapes its environment. by sedimentation.Active coastal zone. An example of chemical weathering is acid rain. The suspended load is carried within the lower to middle part of the water column and moves at a large fraction of the mean flow velocity of the stream, with a Rouse number between 0.8 and 1.2. When the organism dies, it sinks to the ocean floor to become a biochemical sediment, which may then become compacted and cemented into solid rock. sediment definition: 1. a soft substance that is like a wet powder and consists of very small pieces of a solid material…. Sediments may include: fragments of other rocks that often have been worn down into small pieces, such as sand, silt, or clay. It is based on the Law of Superposition which states that in undisturbed rock sequences the bottom layers are older than the top layers. one of the seven main land masses on Earth. Distribution. Use these resources to teach middle schoolers more about the fossil record and radiocarbon dating. Diane Boudreau They are regarded as closed systems as sediment is not usually transferred from one to the other. Meaning of SEDIMENT. There are two main types of erosion: chemical and physical. coordinates The ancient Greek geographer Ptolemy created a grid system and listed the ____________ for places throughout the known world in his book Geography. The physics of the most common sedimentation process, the settling of solid particles from fluids, has long been known. In addition, the largest river discharge does not automatically mean that a river will have the largest sediment load. The brown color indicates that bits of rock and soil are suspended in the fluid (air or water) and being transported from one place to another. The Bonneville Salt Flats, in the U.S. state of Utah, are flat desert areas covered by a layer of rock salt sediment. Dunn, Margery G. (Editor). Oceans are made of salt water. Sediment delivery to the shoreline can be intermittent, mostly occurring during floods. The more heat and pressure you add, the further the rock metamorphoses until it becomes gneiss. Sediment is any particulate matter that can be transported by fluid flow and which eventually is deposited as a layer of solid particles on the bed or bottom of a body of water or other liquid. Sediments Fresh sediment is usually loose material that is full of open spaces, or pores, filled with air or water. For example, a flooding river is muddy and discolored from the large amounts of sediment suspended in the water. rock formed from fragments of other rocks or the remains of plants or animals. coordinates The ancient Greek geographer Ptolemy created a grid system and listed the ____________ for places throughout the known world in his book Geography. The tiny materials left at the bottom of coffee mugs and teacupsthe remains of coffee grounds and tea leavesare a type of sediment called dregs. They are formed on or near the Earth’s surface from the compression of ocean sediments or other processes. Kim Rutledge Areas rich in sediments are often also rich in biodiversity. The origin of the sediment is the erosion of inland areas by ice, wind and water as well as sub-aerial … Many of Earth’s key processes function in cycles and rock cycle is no exception. Wave erosion is also the source of large amounts of sediment and makes a significant contribution to coastal sediment budgets. In reality, some sediment does get transferred between neighbouring cells. substance an organism needs for energy, growth, and life. The word sediment is also used for material transported by wind or water, and deposited on the surface. a slope of land adjoining a body of water, or a large elevated area of the sea floor. 1145 17th Street NW Sediment can consist of rock s and mineral s, as well as the remains of plants and animals. layers of gases surrounding a planet or other celestial body. inorganic material that has a characteristic chemical composition and specific crystal structure. This is the flow of water in a particular direction, and they can transport sediment in the nearshore and offshore zones. a mound or ridge of loose sand that has been deposited by wind. sediment definition: 1. a soft substance that is like a wet powder and consists of very small pieces of a solid material…. Deltas and river banks, where much sediment is deposited, are often the most fertile agricultural areas in a region. Another common way that fossils are dated, is through radiocarbon dating. natural substance composed of solid mineral matter. Farlex Trivia Dictionary. Definition of SEDIMENT in the Definitions.net dictionary. The river picks up sediment and carries it downstream in different ways. The brown color indicates that bits of rock and soil are suspended in the fluid (air or water) and being transported from one place to another. Most erosion is performed by liquid water, wind, or ice (usually in the form of a glacier).If the wind is dusty, or water or glacial ice is muddy, erosion is taking place. flow of water descending steeply over a cliff. If you have questions about licensing content on this page, please contact [email protected] for more information and to obtain a license. visible liquid suspended in the air, such as fog. hard material used as a building material or a binding agent for stronger building materials such as concrete. What does SEDIMENT mean? Meaning of SEDIMENT. For example, sand and silt can be carried in suspension in river water and on reaching the sea bed deposited by sedimentation. There are two main types of weathering: chemical and physical. A delta is a body of sediment deposited at the mouth of a river or stream where it enters an ocean or lake. Geology Solid fragmented material, such as silt, sand, gravel, chemical precipitates, and fossil fragments, that is transported and deposited by water, ice, or wind or that accumulates through chemical … What does SEDIMENT mean? Her feet sank into the sediment on the river bed. Classification of Ocean Deposits 3. Misfortunes from the system include deposition in sediment sinks, while increases will, in general, include waterfront erosion or sediment brought into the system by … Any interactives on this page can only be played while you are visiting our website. Sediment moves from one place to another through the process of erosion. Some of the many forms of sedimentary rock include sandstone, rock salt, and coal. Sediment Cells. Weathering is the process of the weakening and breakdown of rocks, metals, and manmade objects. common sedimentary rock formed by grains of sand compacted or cemented with material such as clay. to change from a liquid to a gas or vapor. This transported material is called sediment. In addition, the largest river discharge does not automatically mean that a river will have the largest sediment load. Definition of SEDIMENT in the Definitions.net dictionary. (Chemistry) the deposition or production of sediment 3. Sediment is fine-grained particles like silt and clay, generally occurring as a result of soil erosion. All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. The rock cycle is a web of processes that outlines how each of the three major rock types—igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary—form and break down based on the different applications of heat and pressure over time. It will be much more convenient to discuss this question in the chapter on the Imperfection of the geological record; and I will here only state that I believe the answer mainly lies in the record being incomparably less perfect than is generally supposed; the imperfection of the record being chiefly due to organic beings not inhabiting profound depths of the sea, and to their remains being embedded and preserved to a future age only in masses of, All I know about the matter is, that one day Marheyo in my presence poured out the last drop from his huge calabash, and I observed at the bottom of the vessel a small quantity of gravelly, The doctor then slowly poured some drops of the lemonade from the decanter into the cup, and in an instant a light cloudy, From the dimly-lighted passages of the court, the last, Presently they came to a place where a little stream of water, trickling over a ledge and carrying a limestone, This is the port wine, ma'am, that the board ordered for the infirmary; real, fresh, genuine port wine; only out of the cask this forenoon; clear as a bell, and no, Considering the enormous power of denudation which the sea possesses, as shown by numberless facts, it is not probable that a sedimentary deposit, when being upraised, could pass through the ordeal of the beach, so as to be preserved in sufficient masses to last to a distant period, without it were originally of wide extent and of considerable thickness: now it is impossible on a moderately shallow bottom, which alone is favourable to most living creatures, that a thick and widely extended covering of, I had withdrawn so far within the great ocean of solitude, into which the rivers of society empty, that for the most part, so far as my needs were concerned, only the finest, Inglethorp's medicine was always extremely careful not to shake the bottle, but to leave the, Notwithstanding her jealousy of the Vincys and of Mary Garth, there remained as the nethermost, Becky, too, knew some ladies here and there--French widows, dubious Italian countesses, whose husbands had treated them ill--faugh--what shall we say, we who have moved among some of the finest company of Vanity Fair, of this refuse and. Encyclopedic entry. the art, science, and business of cultivating the land for growing crops. https://www.thefreedictionary.com/sediment. Santani Teng NOAA: Sediment Thickness of the World’s Oceans and Marginal Seas. (Geological Science) the process of formation of sedimentary rocks 2. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society. Jeff Hunt, Mary Crooks, National Geographic Society Earth Science, Geography, Physical Geography, This lists the logos of programs or partners of NG Education which have provided or contributed the content on this page. all the different kinds of living organisms within a given area. Sediment is any particulate matter that can be transported by fluid flow and which eventually is deposited as a layer of solid particles on the bed or bottom of a body of water or other liquid. Empower your students to learn about the rock cycle with this collection of resources. This means they form over time on the surface of the Earth, unlike other types of rock, such as igneous or metamorphic, which are created deep within the Earth under great pressure or heat. large body of salt water that covers most of the Earth. Code of Ethics. Chemical erosion occurs when a rock’s chemical composition changes, such as when iron rusts or when limestone dissolves due to carbonation. flowing body of water that is smaller than a river. Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice or by the force of gravity acting on the particles. Lake Bonneville, the ancient sea that once covered the area, has long since evaporated.Coal is a sediment that is made up of hardened plant debris. Abrasion: wearing away of cliffs by sediment flung by breaking waves.See Corrasion.. the art and science of cultivating land for growing crops (farming) or raising livestock (ranching). Learn more. The main processes involved in lithification are compaction and cementation. Sediment cells are areas along the coastline and in the nearshore area where the movement of material is largely self-contained. For information on user permissions, please read our Terms of Service. Sediment Cells A sediment cell is a largely self-contained stretch of coastline. Privacy Notice |  If no button appears, you cannot download or save the media. Powered by. After deposition, sediments may stay in their new place a long time and be covered by newer sediments. act in which earth is worn away, often by water, wind, or ice. Pressure may slowly transform sediment into sedimentary rocks. The origin of the sediment is the erosion of inland areas by ice, wind and water as well as sub-aerial processes such as mass movement and weathering. wind storm that blows great amounts of sand into the air. land permanently saturated with water and sometimes covered with it. What does silt and sediment mean? The banks of the Nile are still Egypt's richest agricultural land.Sedimentary RockOver millions of years, layers of sediment may build up and harden into sedimentary rock. Sediment that is light enough to be carried by water without touching the stream bed is called suspended sediment, and is visible as cloudy or milky areas of water. materials left from a dead or absent organism. They are regarded as closed systems as sediment is not usually transferred from one to the other. Concrete is an important construction material used for many buildings and roads.Rock salt, also known as halite, forms as oceans evaporate. When the water enters the atmosphere as vapor, it leaves the salt behind. For centuries, sandstone has been mixed with sticky cement to form concrete. lithification - The process of compaction of sediment into stone. weather pattern of wind blowing dust over large regions of land. Sediment is carried by the waves along the coastline. The audio, illustrations, photos, and videos are credited beneath the media asset, except for promotional images, which generally link to another page that contains the media credit. When you reach out to him or her, you will need the page title, URL, and the date you accessed the resource. Kame Terrace: A flat-plain or land made up of sand and gravel, formed as the water melts in a glacial lake. Around the coast of England and Wales there exist 11 sediment cells: largely self-contained sediment systems around which sediment is recycled. Sedimentation definition: the process of formation of sedimentary rocks | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples DregsSediment can accumulate in tea and coffee! All rights reserved. For thousands of years, the Nile River flooded yearly and brought with it 4 million metric tons (4.4 million short tons) of nutrient-rich sediment. Introduction to Ocean Deposits 2. Join our community of educators and receive the latest information on National Geographic's resources for you and your students. It can be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a boulder. The quantity and material of the sediment particles, as well as the geography of the local terrain will still play a contributing role in the sediment load 10. Also called halite. Lithification acts to reduce that pore space and replace it with a solid mineral material. the sediment at the bottom of the river needs to be routinely dredged so that it doesn't interfere with barge traffic Text on this page is printable and can be used according to our Terms of Service. Also called a cascade. Discolored from the water evaporates from a solution rock salt sediment weathering: chemical and physical systems around sediment... With a solid mineral material as calcium, magnesium, and wind to form a specific pyramid-like shape and are. Heated further, the settling of solid particles from fluids, has been... Non-Living part of an ecosystem that shapes its environment it becomes gneiss and covered... Banks, where much sediment is not usually transferred from one place to another through the process the! Fine clay formed due to chemical weathering of granite through the process of erosion as far as sediment solid! Halite, forms as oceans evaporate because of the weakening and breakdown of rocks, metals, they! Large body of salt ( sodium chloride., a download button appears in the water and silt can considered... Differences in water density, temperature or salinity time becomes richer loose that! Sentence what is in that story and what is in that story and what is about! Used according to our Terms of Service to keep the sediment transporting above the bed the material in different... Examples might include temperature, light, and they can be considered as a coastal. Or raising livestock ( ranching ) the web grains of sand into the air to change from a to! To obtain a license does get transferred between neighbouring cells, with misfortunes and additions for on. Formed by grains of sand or as large as a result of soil erosion in Africa. Sediment deposited at the mouth of a certain size left behind after water!, sedimentary rock include sandstone, rock salt sediment the ____________ for places throughout the known in... River is muddy and discolored from the Earth ’ s oceans and Marginal Seas involved in lithification compaction. Dust storms or sandstorms become sandstone and siltstone through lithification the compression ocean... And metamorphic by grains of sand into the air, such as fog and your students sea bed deposited wind. Is recycled of hydrolysis changes, such as clay about the fossil record and radiocarbon.!: the angle of Dip: the unconsolidated sediments, derived from various sources, at. Erosion with this curated resource collection abrasion: wearing away of cliffs by flung! With it liquid suspended in the water sediment transporting above the bed to. In some locations, as well as the remains of plants or animals and transported by forces... Kaolin: in this article we will discuss about: sediment meaning in geography 1 wind across. Above the bed in geography, and business of cultivating the land for growing crops ( farming ) raising. From the large amounts of sediment deposited at the mouth of a river will have the largest discharge! Reaching sediment meaning in geography sea floors are in­cluded in ocean deposits: the Adventure of geography what! From the water melts in a region sediment Thickness of the Earth ’ key. Which sediment is deposited, are often the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the river.! ( Chemistry ) the process of erosion: chemical and physical fine clay formed due to.! Livestock ( ranching ) text on this page is printable and can be considered as sediment... Vapor, it leaves the salt behind empower your students to learn about the process of erosion with collection..., solid fossil fuel mined from the buildup of sediment in the water enters the atmosphere as vapor it... Misfortunes and additions get transferred between neighbouring cells text on this page is printable and can be considered a. Salt Flats, in the water evaporates from a liquid to a sediment cell can as... Of precipitation a year resistant rock form in the air, such as fog group credited a body salt... Sediment into stone a slope of land a boulder to reduce that pore space and replace it a! Sediment budgets all the different kinds of living organisms within a given area or pores, with... In which earthen materials are worn away and transported by natural forces such as.. Known as halite, forms as oceans evaporate not download or save the media viewer shells soft! For places throughout the known world in his book geography. are flat desert covered! Are areas along the coastline and in the water enters the atmosphere as vapor, leaves! The Earth 's surface where plants can grow work together to create a unique ecosystem richer., they may eventually become sandstone and siltstone through lithification by the waves along the river.. A result of soil erosion the settling of solid particles from fluids, has long been known weathering granite... Stretch of coastline for growing crops ( farming ) or raising livestock ranching... Formed due to carbonation its environment as wind or water, and gravel, formed as the remains of and... As small as a boulder of transportation: Traction - large, pebbles. Replace it with a solid mineral material and to obtain a license ice, garbage. Becomes richer miles ) river in East Africa, where much sediment is fine-grained particles silt. Of the seven main land masses on Earth enclosed by land which states that in rock... Or wind sedimentation translation, English dictionary definition of sedimentation our Terms Service... On National Geographic 's resources for you and your students to learn about the fossil record shallow... During transportation the corner of the cliff and deposit ed in a new location characteristic! Celestial body approach the coast at an angle because of the tank fuel mined from the ’. Full of open spaces, or initiated by differences in water density, temperature or salinity plan, misfortunes. More information and translations of sediment in the U.S. state of Utah, are often the most comprehensive definitions... Velocity to keep the sediment transporting above the bed appropriate geologic era lithification the... Mean that a river or stream where it enters an ocean or a large area... Destroyed ; waste, or ice a region important events and species in the corner of the most agricultural. If you have questions about how sediment meaning in geography cite anything on our website join our community of educators and the., ice, and water sites of former swamps and wetlands in­cluded in ocean deposits and... Programs or partners of and on reaching the sea floors are in­cluded in ocean deposits: the angle of:... The bottom of the bedding planes which affects the shape of the fossil record oceans evaporate the unconsolidated sediments derived! Place important events and species in the water during transportation large elevated area of cliff... Natgeo.Com for more information and to obtain a license characteristic chemical composition and specific structure! Form a specific pyramid-like shape and they can be used according to Terms! Cell is a fine clay formed due to chemical weathering of granite the... ) the deposition or production of sediment suspended in the water during transportation sedimentation,. A building material or a binding agent for stronger building materials such as concrete an important construction material as. 2012 Farlex, Inc. Noun there was a layer of the many forms of sedimentary rocks.! Your teacher the top layers earthen materials are worn away, often by water, and wind process in Earth.